The neuralforecast library provides a comprehensive set of state-of-the-art deep learning models designed to power-up time series forecasting pipelines.

The library is constructed using a modular approach, where different responsibilities are isolated within specific modules. These modules include the user interface functions (core), data processing and loading (tsdataset), scalers, losses, and base classes for models.

This tutorial aims to explain the library’s structure and to describe how the different modules interact with each other.

I. Map

The following diagram presents the modules of the neuralforecast library and their relations.

II. Modules

1. Core (

The core module acts as the primary interaction point for users of the neuralforecast library. It houses the NeuralForecast class, which incorporates a range of key user interface functions designed to simplify the process of training and forecasting models. Functions include fit, predict, cross_validation, and predict_insample, each one constructed to be intuitive and user-friendly. The design of the NeuralForecast class is centered around enabling users to streamline their forecasting pipelines and to comfortably train and evaluate models.

2. Dataset and Loader (

The TimeSeriesDataset class, located within the tsdataset module, is responsible for the storage and preprocessing of the input time series dataset. Once the TimeSeriesDataset class has prepared the data, it’s then consumed by the TimeSeriesLoader class, which samples batches (or subsets) of the time series during the training and inference stages.

3. Base Model (common)

The common module contains three BaseModel classes, which serve as the foundation for all the model structures provided in the library. These base classes allow for a level of abstraction and code-reusability in the design of the models. We currently support three type of models:

  • BaseWindows: designed for window-based models like NBEATS and Transformers.
  • BaseRecurrent: designed for recurrent models like RNN and LSTM.
  • BaseMultivariate: caters to multivariate models like StemGNN.

4. Model (models)

The models module encompasses all the specific model classes available for use in the library. These include a variety of both simple and complex models such as RNN, NHITS, LSTM, StemGNN, and TFT. Each model in this module extends from one of the BaseModel classes in the common module.

5. Losses (losses)

The losses module includes both numpy and pytorch losses, used for evalaution and training respectively. The module contains a wide range of losses, including MAE, MSE, MAPE, HuberLoss, among many others.

6. Scalers (

The module houses the TemporalNorm class. This class is responsible for the scaling (normalization) and de-scaling (reversing the normalization) of time series data. This step is crucial because it ensures all data fed to the model have a similar range, leading to more stable and efficient training processes.

III. Flow

The user first instantiates a model and the NeuralForecast core class. When they call the fit method, the following flow is executed:

  1. The fit method instantiates a TimeSeriesDataset object to store and pre-process the input time series dataset, and the TimeSeriesLoader object to sample batches.
  2. The fit method calls the model’s fit method (in the BaseModel class).
  3. The model’s fit method instantiates a Pytorch-Lightning Trainer object, in charge of training the model.
  4. The Trainer method samples a batch from the TimeSeriesLoader object, and calls the model’s training_step method (in the BaseModel class).
  5. The model’s training_step:
    • Samples windows from the original batch.
    • Normalizes the windows with the scaler module.
    • Calls the model’s forward method.
    • Computes the loss using the losses module.
    • Returns the loss.
  6. The Trainer object repeats step 4 and 5 until max_steps iterations are completed.
  7. The model is fitted, and can be used for forecasting future values (with the predict method) or recover insample predictions (using the predict_insample method).

IV. Next Steps: add your own model

Congratulations! You now know the internal details of the neuralforecast library.

With this knowledge you can easily add new models to the library, by just creating a model class which only requires the init and forward methods.

Check our detailed guide on how to add new models!